July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Discussion of the confirmed Zodiac letters

July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Soze » Wed Jun 07, 2017 3:27 pm

On July 31, 1969, a man, who would later call himself the Zodiac, mailed three letters addressed to the editors of the San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Examiner and the Vallejo Times-Herald. The envelopes the letters were mailed in each contained 6-cent Franklin Delano Roosevelt stamps in various quantities. Each letter sent was predominately the same letter with slight variations in sentence structure and all contained multiple uses of the word “cipher”. The San Francisco Chronicle letter was the only letter to include the phrase “In this cipher is my idenity”. All three letters mailed included 1/3 of a cipher.

When I first started reading up on the Zodiac letters there were four things that initially bugged me concerning the communications dated July 31, 1969:

1. The quantity of stamps used for mailing each letter, specifically, the letter addressed to the Vallejo Times-Herald.
2. The exclusion of the word “Herald” from the company name “Vallejo Times-Herald” found in the San Francisco Chronicle letter.
3. The inclusion of the phrase “In this cipher is my idenity” found in the San Francisco Chronicle letter.
4. The inclusion of the phrase “near the golf course in Vallejo” found in the San Francisco Chronicle letter.

With regards to item one above, the quantity of stamps used for mailing, I offer the following:

When I first started reading up on the July 31, 1969 letter, I typed all three letters side by side into one, Microsoft word document. What I wanted to do at this point was compare the three letters to see what words or phrases were different between the papers. When I did this the thought crossed my mind that the three letters, side by side, looked like columns in a newspaper. With that thought, it seemed to make sense why the Zodiac, inserted a line after talking about the two crimes he committed in two of his letters. Newspapers insert lines between articles in columns. The Zodiac’s writing was no different. That line in his letters separated two different points of interest for the Zodiac; his killings/attack locations and the cipher. I then thought that maybe he wrote the word “over" instead of a line in one letter to perhaps hide or disguise that fact.

At this point I started wondering what the Zodiac might have known about newspapers altogether.

Could he have known how columns worked or are prepared?

This caused me to wonder about how wide a newspaper column was. I was curious at this point if it were even possible that the Zodiac might have written his letter as if it were a newspaper column, basically, doing the work for the papers he wrote to.

I looked up column width and found column inches. A column inch is a unit of space one column wide by one inch high. Broadsheet newspapers usually have between 6 and 9 columns. The San Francisco Chronicle and the Vallejo Times-Herald are both broadsheets. The San Francisco Chronicle appears to have had 8 columns. I learned by calling the Vallejo Times-Herald that the Vallejo Times-Herald has 6 columns, however, I never could find out if this was standard in 1969. The San Francisco Examiner is considered to be a tabloid paper. A tabloid paper usually has 5 columns. In view of Examiner papers of the time online I was able to see that the Examiner had 5 to 6 columns.

A common column width measurement for a broadsheet paper is 11 picas wide or 1.83 inches. I do not know if this was standard in 1969. Since a tabloid paper is a smaller paper with fewer columns, the columns in a tabloid paper, will actually be larger in width than a broadsheet and would require fewer columns.

The one inch high mentioned above is paragraph size. From what I have read it is generally accepted that there are 25 to 35 words in a column inch paragraph. I do not know if this was standard in 1969.

I tried to locate a specific font each of the papers might have used in 1969 but could find nothing on the subject. I did ultimately compare the font of a San Francisco Chronicle newspaper article of the time to various fonts and settled on the font being something of a “Times” or “Times New Roman”.
I also pulled up the advertising specs for a broadsheet on the San Francisco Chronicle website and noted the following:

1. Paper size 11 x 21
2. Left/right margins: .625 inches
3. Top/bottom margins: .375 inches
4. Column gutter width: .167 inches

At this point I opened a blank Microsoft Word document and first set the font to the only font of the two I had; Times New Roman. Since I did not know the exact font size of the papers I kept the standard size 11 that was there when I opened the document. From there I set the document to the 4 items I listed above, made 2 columns and, made sure to give a column width of 1.83 inches. I then typed the July 31, 1969 San Francisco Chronicle letter into the first column and the Vallejo Times-Herald into the second column.

The San Francisco Chronicle ended up having 9 errors and the Vallejo Times-Herald had 10. I did not do the anything with the San Francisco Examiner letter as I was unsure as to the width a column would be for that paper. As I said, the San Francisco Examiner was a tabloid paper and, would carry a much wider column width than the other two.

Now when I say that there were errors, I am meaning that the lines of text I typed, didn’t match up exactly as the Zodiac had written it on paper.

Part of the reason for the errors, I feel, is related to not knowing the exact font type and size the papers used in publication. Fonts come in various widths and heights and these measurements affect how much of the text appears per line. Depending upon, the font type, you may have more or less words per line. For example, the following, is what a portion of the Zodiac’s text would look like in a 1.83 inch column designated by the font type and size listed below (the underlined items are an example of the “errors” that I speak of):

This is the murderer of the 2 teenagers last Christmass at Lake Herman

- Times New Roman size 11

This is the murderer of the 2 teenagers last Christmass at Lake Herman

- Microsoft Sans Serif size 11

This is the murderer of the 2 teenagers last Christmass at Lake Herman

- Bookman Old Style size 11

Note:

This information isnt being presented as it should be. If you create your own document using the information I provided you will see what I am speaking of.

As you can see, as each font type increases by design, the number of words decreases per line. This will have an impact on this mock column but I don’t believe it is a major factor in why the text wont line up exactly as written.

When we look at the Zodiac’s letter(s) dated July 31, 1969 we see the following:

1. Increased/decreased spacing between words
2. Increased/decreased spacing between letters in words
3. Increased/decreased letter size in words
4. Improper capitalization
5. Bolded text
6. Addition/subtraction of letters in the spelling of words

While some may read the Zodiac’s letter and see simply the Zodiac’s flow and style of penmanship, his lack of knowledge in spelling and, in the case of the bold writing, how much ink may have been left in his pen at the time of writing, the fact of the matter is that the above items are also very closely related to the art of typography. Typography is the arrangement of type to make written language legible, readable and appealing to its viewers.

In the early days of composition for printing, individual letters or symbols, called sorts, were cast from lead and kept in a box according to their font style, size, weight and whether they were upper or lower case. This box would also contain wedges or blanks in various widths.

A compositor or typesetter, composing a paragraph of text, would use a handheld device called a composite stick. They would take the individual cast letters and place them in the composite stick to form words of a line. Wedges or blanks are placed between the words and between lines to make the words appear readable.

When the compositor or typesetter approaches the end of a line they have decisions to make as to how many more words can be added. Maybe they have enough room to add one more word. Maybe they have to break up that word with a hyphen and place part of the word on the next line. Maybe they have to place the whole word on the next line. After that decision is made, whatever remaining space is left in the line, the compositor or typesetter has decisions to make in terms of how best to redistribute the remaining empty space in that line to keep that line of text looking justified from margin to margin.

The compositor or typesetter will then place more wedges between words, between letters of words and in some cases, between pairs of letters. They may even have to decrease the wedges or blanks, increase or decrease the size of a font for the whole sentence, a word or even just a single letter.

Capitalization of letters and the bolding of text work in similar fashion to that of an increase or decrease in wedge size. Capital letters and bolded text carry a much larger size than its counterpart and reduces the amount of empty space. Example:

Christmas|
christmas|

Christmas|
Christmas|

Note:

The above examples are not coming out in post as they should. Why I don't. They will look a lot how I've shown below for fry and patterned. Why those two are coming out correctly I don't know.

Adding in a letter or the taking out of a letter in a word does much the same thing in terms of space. This will all affect the number or words appearing per line. Example:

Patterned|
Paterned|

In addition to this we also begin to see an explanation for why the Zodiac misspelled certain words; Christmas, patterned, cruise, front and Fri. In the first paragraph of the Zodiac’s letter we see that “Christmas” ends a line and is misspelled as “Christmass”. In the first two lines of text, if we placed one space in the word document where there is a larger visual appearance in spacing in the Zodiac’s written text (between this/is, murder/of, of/the, teenagers/last, and last/Christmass), the first two errors (the numeral 2 and at) clear up. If we then remove the added “s” to “Christmass” we see that the word “at” (seen on the next line) will appear on the same line as the word “Christmas”. By, him adding in the extra “s”, he is eliminating the extra space at the end of this line of text causing the word “at” to appear where he wants or needs it to be; the next line.

The same can be said for the words “paterned” and “cruse”. In both instances the words end a line and both have a letter removed from its correct spelling.

When it comes to, the word “paterned”, the Zodiac has increased spacing between the numeral 1 and the word girl. Had he not gave this increased spacing, the word paterned, could have been spelled correctly. It took three spaces between the numeral 1 and the word girl to cause the word “paterned” to appear on the next line if spelled correctly as “patterned”. The increased spacing left zero empty space to accommodate the correct spelling and have the words appear on the line he intended. The removal of the “t” in patterned places the word back to the original line he wrote and satisfies the spacing requirements as well as his intention.

The same can be said about the word “cruse”, however, there are additional steps he took. In the line of text where he uses the word cruse and, in the line before, you can visually see an increase spacing between words (Aug and 69), decrease in spacing between words (I will go on a), a reduction in letter size (ram-), an increase in word size (Kill) and, bolding of text.

The abbreviation of Friday (Fri.) spelled as Fry. is performed by the Zodiac in the same fashion as he used a capital letter or bolded text as described above. The letter “y” has a wider width than the letter “i” and this wider width takes up space. Example:

Fry|
Fri|

The continuation of spelling Christmas as Christmass and spelling the word front as frunt was simply to continue with the illusion that he was an illiterate. In the case of the “o” in front and the “u” in frunt nothing changes but your opinion of him as a speller. The two letters are the same size. Example:

Front|
Frunt|

It is my opinion that the Zodiac wrote each letter as if he were writing a column for the paper he wrote to.

Note:

To further add, hand composition, lineotype and monotype machines, all went out in the mid to late 70’s as computers then became the norm. If he worked for the papers as a compositor, which I don’t think he did, he would have continued with the paper in the area of desktop publishing.

Composition sticks are the first thing that a typesetter learns and, if they didn’t learn this on the job as an inexperienced new hire, they learned it in high school. Those who learn this in high school will be part of the high school paper and had a likely photo within the school yearbook.

Lineotypes and monotypes are machines that replaced hand composition. Lineotypes were used in the newspaper business and monotypes were used in the book making and printing fields that make up flyers and the like. Both work similar to hand composition but in mechanized form.

At this point I found myself thinking about the whole thing again:

1. His love for writing newspapers
2. His addressing of editors
3. His knowledge of typesetting and his composition of letters correlating to that of a newspaper column.

I found myself wondering what else he might have known about the newspaper business and how he may have used it when writing those letters. I read up on all three newspapers and found another correlation with newspapers. This, I feel, relates directly to the stamps themselves.

What makes the stamps seem interesting is the quantity of stamps used for the Vallejo Times-Herald. If every envelope had contained the same number of stamps or, something relatively close to what would appear necessary for mailing, then nothing about the stamps would raise an eye. However, the Vallejo Times-Herald had three times the postage than was actually necessary to mail the letter.

I dug into each paper, thinking that maybe the quantity of stamps related to something regarding each paper and, the following is what I was able to come up with:

The Vallejo Times-Herald first began in 1875 as the Solano Daily Times. Over the years, through a single name change and then a merger, the paper went through 4 different publishers:

1. Adolphe B. Gibson
2. George Roe
3. Robert W. Walker
4. Luther Earl Gibson

All 4 had owned what was known as the Vallejo Times. Luther Earl Gibson was publisher of the paper at the time the Zodiac killings began. He acquired the Vallejo Times in 1922 and, sometime afterwards, merged it with a paper he owned called the Vallejo Herald. From that point on the Vallejo Times would be forever known as the Vallejo Times-Herald.

For me this explains why the Zodiac left a large gap in the 4th line of text on page 2 of the San Francisco Chronicle letter after the word times. He was signifying to look at the company Vallejo Times. This, in my opinion, satisfies my interest in my initial item 2 above.

The San Francisco Examiner first began in 1863 as the Democratic Press. Over the years the company went through three name changes, one acquisition and, two publishers:

5. William S. Moss
6. William Randolph Hearst Sr.

Since 1951, the paper was under the control of a board of 13 trustees, five of which were Hearst family members. At the head of this board was William Randolph Hearst Jr. who was not only head at the time of the Zodiac killings but editor in chief.

The San Francisco Chronicle began in 1865 as the Daily Dramatic Chronicle. The paper changed names one time in 1869 to what is known today as the San Francisco Chronicle. Since the death of Michael de Young in 1925, on up to the time of the Zodiac killings, the paper has gone through 2 different publishers:

7. George Toland Cameron
8. Charles de Young Thieriot

The San Francisco Chronicle has always been family owned. It began with Charles and Michael de Young and was run by Michael de Young (after the death of his brother Charles) until his death in 1925. One of the reasons why the Chronicle stayed family owned for as long as it has was due to an inclusion in Michael de Young’s will that essentially stated the paper would only be run by family members until the last of Michael de Young’s daughters passed away. George Toland Cameron was married to Michael de Young’s daughter Margaret and ran the paper from the time of the founders death in 1925 to his own death in 1955. Charles de Young Thieriot was the son of another daughter of Michael de Young named Kathleen.

Charles de Young Thieriot was publisher at the time the Zodiac killings began.

As you can see, my position here, is that the quantity of stamps used for mailing a letter to each paper relate directly to the number of publishers that each paper went though from the time the papers began on up to the time the Zodiac killings were occurring.

Given that the Zodiac had a penchant for writing newspapers, addressing the letters to the editors and what seems to be a drafting of his letters for exact print in the paper, I see no reason why the Zodiac wouldn’t think to include the publishers as well.

A recap of the publishers for each paper:

1. Adolphe B. Gibson – Vallejo Times
2. George Roe – Vallejo Times
3. Robert W. Walker – Vallejo Times
4. Luther Earl Gibson – Vallejo Times
5. William S. Moss – San Francisco Examiner
6. William Randolph Hearst Sr. – San Francisco Examiner
7. George Toland Cameron – San Francisco Chronicle
8. Charles de Young Thieriot – San Francisco Chronicle

At this point I am seeing 8 names and all were publishers of the three papers the Zodiac wrote to. I start thinking about the newspapers, the stamps, publishing, typesetting and the like. I then start thinking about the letters and how the Zodiac had threatened to kill a dozen over the weekend but never did. I then began wondering if the “dozen” the Zodiac spoke of in his letter(s) related to the 8 I had already put together concerning the stamps and further wondered if 4 more could be found. After some thought I came to realize that I already had a partial answer: the Zodiac had addressed his letters directly to the editor. The following people were the current editors of each paper the Zodiac sent a letter to:

1. Thomas Wyman Riley - Vallejo Times-Herald
2. William Randolph Hearst Jr. - San Francisco Examiner
3. Scott Josephine Newhall - San Francisco Chronicle

Here we have a total of 11 publishers and editors that relate directly to the papers the Zodiac wrote to on July 31, 1969. Another recap:

1. A.B. Gibson - Publisher Vallejo Times
2. George Roe - Publisher Vallejo Times
3. Robert W. Walker - Publisher Vallejo Times
4. Luther Earl Gibson - Publisher Vallejo Times
5. William S. Moss - Publisher San Francisco Examiner
6. William Randolph Hearst Sr. - Publisher San Francisco Examiner
7. George Toland Cameron - Publisher San Francisco Chronicle
8. Charles de Young Thieriot - Publisher San Francisco Chronicle
9. Thomas Wyman Riley - Editor Vallejo Times-Herald
10. William Randolph Hearst - Editor San Francisco Examiner
11. Scott Josephine Newhall - Editor San Francisco Chronicle

For the dozen to be complete one name was left to be found. I dug and dug through his letters looking for anything or anyone that would relate back to the publishing and editing of the papers and could find nothing. I sat and thought about it all and came back to the stamps themselves. The stamps had the face of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, Dutchess County, New York. In 1900 he began attending Harvard College and received his undergraduate degree in 1903. In 1904 he returned to Harvard College for a year of graduate work. He then would attend Columbia Law School. From 1911 to 1913 he served in the New York State Senate and then later as Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1913 to 1920. In 1920 he ran as Vice President with the presidential candidate James M. Cox. The Cox/Roosevelt ticket lost to Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. In 1924 Roosevelt ran for Governor of New York and won. He served as Governor from 1929 to 1932. In 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran for President against Herbert Hoover and won. He was President of the United States between 1933 and 1945.

In all of my reading I saw nothing that related back to the papers the Zodiac wrote to. Believing that Franklin Delano Roosevelt was likely the 12th person to be, named as his “dozen”, I went back and looked again. It was at this time that I realized that, while at Harvard College, Roosevelt was editor of Harvard’s student newspaper called the Crimson.

Through all of this I had been thinking that maybe the Zodiac had wanted to work for all of the papers that he wrote to but never did. It was clear that he knew typesetting and it was clear to me that he wrote his letters for direct print in each of the papers. My first thought, obviously, centered around the papers. But here I am thinking that maybe it wasn’t the papers, so to speak, that the Zodiac was most interested in. Not saying it isn’t to be included as a factor in the Zodiac’s writing but I think clearly that the Zodiac’s ultimate love was editing and publishing. This would be the Zodiac’s personal interest and perhaps something he was actually doing for work at the time the Zodiac killings began.

Given this editing/publishing, I believe this would make Roosevelt, number 12 in terms of the Zodiac’s “dozen”. Another recap:

1. A.B. Gibson - Publisher Vallejo Times
2. George Roe - Publisher Vallejo Times
3. Robert W. Walker - Publisher Vallejo Times
4. Luther Earl Gibson - Publisher Vallejo Times
5. William S. Moss - Publisher San Francisco Examiner
6. William Randolph Hearst Sr. - Publisher San Francisco Examiner
7. George Toland Cameron - Publisher San Francisco Chronicle
8. Charles de Young Thieriot - Publisher San Francisco Chronicle
9. Thomas Wyman Riley - Editor Vallejo Times-Herald
10. William Randolph Hearst Jr. - Editor San Francisco Examiner
11. Scott Josephine Newhall - Editor San Francisco Chronicle
12. Franklin Delano Roosevelt - Editor Crimson

Note:

Something is wrong with the formatting when transfering from word to post. The section where I discuss the font and size is not coming out like it should be.

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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Seagull » Thu Jun 08, 2017 12:37 pm

Soze, I have original issues of the Chronicle and the Examiner. Both newspapers were the same size back in 1969. The measurement of the papers are the same, 22 3/4" H X 14 9/16" W. Both papers have 8 columns and appear to use the same font in the text of articles. However the headline fonts of the articles seem to be various with each article.

A tabloid size, to me, is 11" x 17".

The date on the Chronicle is Aug. 5, 1969.

The date on the Examiner is Oct. 23, 1969.


Chronicle size.PNG


Examiner size.PNG


Chron Exam size.PNG
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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Soze » Thu Jun 08, 2017 3:06 pm

Somewhere along the line I have become mixed up as to whether the Examiner was a tabloid or broadsheet. Rather makes me sick but it is what is. Thank you for the clarification.

Does knowing the Examiner is a broadsheet rather than a tabloid change things?

No. I don't think it does. The real issue in determining whether or not the Zodiac wrote his letters for exact print is in knowing how wide the columns for each paper were. I don't have the exact info other than what I found online. This info does put one very close to how both the Chronicle and Vallejo letters appear in the hand written letter but it's not without error. I never did work on the Examiner because of the tabloid belief and not having approximate measurements. I'm fixing to find out how that comes out as a broadsheet.

Question: Would you be able to measure the distance between the start of the first letter in a line and the end of the last letter in that line? And could you do it for both papers?

I'm curious what that measurement would be and if it is even close to the 1.83 inches.

Question: Are there certain locations within each paper, specifically the Examiner, where the column width is actually larger but, not much larger than, a typical column width? If so, what would that measurement be and what would be the reason (or circumstance) for the extra width in your opinion.?

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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Seagull » Thu Jun 08, 2017 3:40 pm

Soze, here's a link to the article that is on the front page of the Examiner I posted in this thread.

viewtopic.php?f=94&t=427

I think you could count the letters and spaces on each line to come up with the answer to your question about the spaces at the beginning and end of each paragraph. The space at the end of each paragraph would be different though because not each paragraph has the same number of letters and spaces.

Also, sometimes the beginning few lines of an article are stretched out over two columns as in the article pictured. The rest of the newspaper has eight columns on each page. Of course there is advertising so some pages have a varying number of columns and then an ad or ads to fill out the width. But the columns of text are a consistent size throughout.

Each column measuring from the solid vertical line that separates the columns to the next vertical line is exactly 1 25/32" wide for the Examiner and 1 3/4" for the Chronicle. The Examiner has columns that are 1/32" wider than the Chronicle.

Go to the San Francisco Chronicle Chronological thread to count the letters and spaces for that newspaper.

viewtopic.php?f=110&t=1193
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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Soze » Thu Jun 08, 2017 3:52 pm

So approximately one and three quarters for both. Fairly close to the 1.83 average.

Thank you

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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Seagull » Thu Jun 08, 2017 4:42 pm

Regarding the space at the beginning of a paragraph, I noticed that the Examiner's paragraphs began two letters in consistently but the Chronicle usually began two letters in though occasionally just one letter in. I think it depended on the person doing the typesetting as to spacing. In each newspaper there are varying widths between words, almost imperceptible but there are variances.

As I recall from high school, which was a very long time ago, there are en spaces and em spaces used in typesetting. The em space is equal to point size of a given font. In a 12 point font the em space is 12 points, the en space in narrower. Because individual letters are different widths, the i is much narrower than a w or m, there will never be an exact number of letters in a line, only an average. The typesetter uses the en and em spaces to make the lines look as if they are all the same width.
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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby YourSecretPal » Thu Jun 08, 2017 5:04 pm

So an editor of a college news paper would make an excellent candidate..? (I know one)
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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Soze » Thu Jun 08, 2017 5:13 pm

YourSecretPal wrote:So an editor of a college news paper would make an excellent candidate..? (I know one)


Yup. So would an author or a person that has written commercial ads. I know someone that did both. Still not enough yoursecretpal for either one of us.

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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby Soze » Thu Jun 08, 2017 5:22 pm

Seagull,

It's interesting that you mention en and ems. I tried using that to determine how much spacing he employed (crazy idea?) and after awhile I just gave up. I am hoping that Trav chimes in and has some ideas on how to accomplish that because I'm at a loss. I'd love to go and speak with someone familiar with typesetting and have them duplicate what I've discussed above but......

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Re: July 31, 1969 Letter - Post 1

Postby traveller1st » Thu Jun 08, 2017 6:50 pm

No idea.

Sorry Seagull .... SORRY. :lol:

I think it's a relevant and interesting area of thinking Soze. I certainly believe that Zodiac was involved in some capacity in graphic/printing etc. I have some practical issues though with nailing him down to being a typesetter based on his writing. One thing is time constraints. Take the Stine letter. He had to get that out quickly and yet he pretty much employed the same habits as the other letters not taking the more stylized letters into account. By same habits I mean the kerning for one. It's pretty much all over the place but, perhaps ironically, it's consistent. So in that respect I believe it's a writing habit and not attributable to a styling choice or typesetting. With the Belli letter he starts off stylized then he defaults to what is probably his normal style.

The other thing is his letters are ranged left. Ok, if you were a typesetter you would be unlikely to justify. Bit too obvious maybe. He may or may not have employed 'on the fly' tracking as such but probably no more that any of us would writing a letter and realizing that we might be, for example, approx four words from the end of a line knowing that we're going to use a long word so we might space things out a bit to make sure that word starts on the next line rather than splitting it. Again though we have another problem because he couldn't even get that right. So he hyphenates. Something we would do ourselves.

These decisions and habits, I suppose, we have to put in context. By that I mean time. Writing letters and writing to newspapers were contemporary to his period of activity and as such he may well have automatically considered certain things such as letter sizes and column widths. He might have even researched it to ensure or attempt to force a desired level of exposure. Then again he did qualify writing to the LA Times because they "don't bury me on the back pages". So either he got his calculations wrong or he wasn't thinking about forcing placement? I don't know.

It's really great that you're looking into this because it needs exploring and thank you for the time you've put into this. Very impressive. So, without going into more detail, my initial feelings are there isn't anything that jumps out at me and screams typesetting per se. Not to say he didn't employ certain aspects of that and similar disciplines but I think there's too many normal things, if you can call them that, to factor in. So ... was he around typesetting? most probably but I don't see anything that says 'this is what I do'.

Just my thoughts. :)
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